Climate Change in Australia

Climate information, projections, tools and data


Global warming level pages

Cowtan, K., & Way, R.G. (2014). Coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series and its impact on recent temperature trends. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 140(683), 1935–1944.

Hawkins, E., Frame, D., Harrington, L., Joshi, M., King, A., Rojas, M., & Sutton, R. (2020). Observed Emergence of the Climate Change Signal: From the Familiar to the Unknown. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(6).

Hawkins, E. and Sutton, R. (2012). Time of emergence of climate signals. Geophysical Research Letters 39. DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050087 Henley, B.J. and King, A.D. (2017). Trajectories toward the 1.5°C Paris target: Modulation by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters 44: 4256-4262.

IPCC (2018). Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner et al. Geneva, Switzerland, World Meteorological Organization.

James, R., Washington, R., Schleussner, C.-F., Rogelj, J. and Conway, D. (2017). Characterizing half-a-degree difference: a review of methods for identifying regional climate responses to global warming targets. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 8: e457.

King, A.D., Knutti, R., Uhe, P., Mitchell, D.M., Lewis, S.C., Arblaster, J.M. and Freychet, N. (2018). On the Linearity of Local and Regional Temperature Changes from 1.5°C to 2°C of Global Warming. Journal of Climate 31: 7495-7514.

Mitchell, D. and co-authors (2017). Half a degree additional warming, prognosis and projected impacts (HAPPI): background and experimental design. Geosci. Model Dev. 10: 571-583.

Rohde, R.A., & Hausfather, Z. (2020). The Berkeley Earth Land/Ocean Temperature Record. Earth System Science Data Discussions. Retrieved from

Sanderson, B.M., Oleson, K.W., Strand, W.G., Lehner, F. and O’Neill, B.C. (2018). A new ensemble of GCM simulations to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario. Climatic Change 146: 303-318.

Schurer, A.P., Mann, M.E., Hawkins, E., Tett, S.F.B., & Hegerl, G.C. (2017). Importance of the pre-industrial baseline for likelihood of exceeding Paris goals. Nature Climate Change, 7(8), 563–567.

Seneviratne, S.I., Donat, M.G., Pitman, A.J., Knutti, R. and Wilby, R.L. (2016). Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets. Nature 529: 477-483.

Sutton, R., Suckling, E. and Hawkins, E. (2015). What does global mean temperature tell us about local climate? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 373.

Tebaldi, C. and Knutti, R. (2018). Evaluating the accuracy of climate change pattern emulation for low warming targets. Environmental Research Letters 13: 055006.

Trewin, B., Braganza, K., Fawcett, R., Grainger, S., Jovanovic, B., Jones, D., Martin, D., Smalley, R., & Webb, V. (2020). An updated long‐term homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia. Geoscience Data Journal, gdj3.95.

van Vuuren, D., Edmonds, J., Kainuma, M., Riahi, K., Thomson, A., Hibbard, K. et al. (2011). The representative concentration pathways: an overview. Climatic Change 109: 5-31. World Meteorological Organisation WMO (2020) Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update. Accessible at:

Zommers, Z. and co-authors (2020). Burning embers: towards more transparent and robust climate-change risk assessments. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment 1: 516-529.